They have broken the covenant in the Past, they will in the Future
The Qur’an depicts the history of the Jews at the time of Prophet Muhammad (S) and describes certain characteristics they would possess in the chapter named “The Cow”. One among the characteristics is their habit of breaking the treaties. Any person who knows the history of Arab- Israeli conflicts would not disagree with Qur’an on this aspect, at least not now, when the all world in reading the breakdown of peace treaties between Israel and Palestine.
Allah in these verses speaks about the covenant made by the People of Israelites regarding Prophet Muhammad (S). The people of Israelites were ordered to believe in the Last Prophet and they were expecting one. But when the prophet came with the promised revelation they rejected and denied him. The scholars from the Jew knew that Muhammad is the promised prophet and Qur’an is the message from the God, Almighty, for the signs of prohethood contained in the Qur’an narrate the secret knowledge that the Jews possess that which they used to hide. The Qur’an also mentions the texts in the Books of Jews that are known only to the Jewish scholars and the texts that which they altered and distorted the rulings of Torah.
Once Muhammad (S) came with Qur’an, Allah reminded the Jews of the covenant that they had with him. However their response was that of deception and denial. Malik Bin As- Sayf, a Jewish Scholar and leader said, “By Allah, Allah never made covenant with us about Muhammad, nor did He take a pledge from us at all”[i]. Allah revealed the following verse as a response to their trickery: “Is it not [true] that every time they took a covenant a party of them threw it away? But, [in fact], most of them do not believe.”[Qur’an 2: 100]
During the time of Prophet Muhammad (S) as the ruler of the Islamic State, he had several treaties with the Jews in different parts of the state and most of them were broken. Al Hasan al Basri (r) commenting on the statement ‘But, [in fact], most of them do not believe’ said that ‘there is not a promise that they make, but they break it and abandon. They make a promise today and break it tomorrow’. The current situation of the Jews is not different from this. They are breaking the peace treaties they signed in the present and they will continue it in the future.
[i] Tafsir Ibn Kathir